Sunday, 25 September 2011

1845 in the Land of the real Americans

The Texas–Indian wars were a series of conflicts between settlers in Texas and Plains Indians. These conflicts began when the first European and mostly Spanish settlers moved into Spanish Texas, and continued through Texas's time as part of Mexico, when more Europeans, especially Americans arrived, to the subsequent declaration of independence with the Republic of Texas, and did not end until 30 years after Texas joined the United States. Although several Indian nations existed in the area in opposition to the Europeans, Mexicans, and Americans, the preeminent nation was the Commanche. O 11 Comanche 30mm Willie Mounted PaintedTheir territory of Commancheria was the most powerful and persistent country in hostility with the Europeans, Mexicans, and finally Texans. This article covers the conflicts from 1820, just before Mexico gained independence from Spain, until 1875, when the last free band of Plains Indians, the Comanches led by Quahadi warrior Quanah Parker, surrendered and moved to the Fort Sill reservation in Oklahoma.
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The half-century struggle between the Plains tribes and the Texans became particularly intense after the Spanish, and then Mexicans, left power in Texas, and the Republic of Texas, and then the United States, opposed the tribes. Their war with the Plains Indians became one of deep animosity, slaughter, and, in the end, near-total conquestO 1 General Officer 30mm Willie Mounted Kit 1
Although the outcome was lop-sided, the violence of the wars were not, especially in regards to the Commanche. The later led such a violent existence, looting, burning, murdering, and kidnapping as far south as Mexico City and especially destroying and capturing so many Texans that Commanche became a by-word for terrorism.Woman ramming musket ThuWoman charging using musket as a clubsWoman firing musket from hip  , when he recovered Cynthia Ann Parker at Pease River, Sul Ross observed that her recovery would be felt in every family in Texas, as every one of them had lost someone in the Indian Wars. ICynthia Ann Parker, or Naduah (also sometimes spelled "Nadua" and "Nauta," meaning "someone found"; some research has shown that the name Naduah actually means "Keeps Warm With Us"), (ca 1827–1870) was an American woman of old colonial stock Woman crounching priming musketBoy crouching carrying squirrel gun!Ranger Kneeling Firing WinchesterCowboy standing firing winchester
ofScots-Irish descent who was captured and kidnapped at the age of nine by a American Indian band which massacred her family and settlement. dixon aboveFile:Cynthia.jpg.
Cynthia Ann was a member of the large Parker frontier family that settled in east Texas in the 1830s. She was captured in 1836 by Comanches during the raid of Fort Parker near present-day Groesbeck, Texas, witnessing the brutal torture and murder of her grand-father, John Parker and the repeated gang rape of several of her relatives. Parker was abused, sometimes tortured, and heavily discriminated against by the pure Commanche. She was adopted as the wife of Commanche chief Peta Nocona.old glory
Peta Nocona (died 1864?) was a Commanche chief of the war-band Noconi. He led his tribe during the great Comanche Wars in Texas from the 1830s to 1860. During his period of leadership, the Commanche made the last of their brutal raids into Texas and Mexico during which his tribe terrorizedrapedmurderedmassacred, and kidnapped tens of thousands of MexicansTexans, and Tejanos before he was finally killed by the Texas Rangers. He was the son of the Comanche chief  old glory below
Rumored to be a physically gigantic man, with murderous ruthless hatred toward Americans and Mexicans, he was a feared terrorist on the Texas border for three decades until a company of Texas Rangers and Militia led by Sul Ross ambushed and destroyed his band at the Battle of Pease River on December 18, 1860.The Battle of Pease River Pease Riveroccurred on December 18, 1860, near the town of Margaret, Texas in Foard County, Foard County, Margaret TX, Pease River Battlefield MarkerTexas,United States. The town is located between Crowell and Vernon within sight of the Medicine Mounds just outside present-day Quanah, Texas. Foard County, Margaret TX, Pease River Battlefield Marker textmonument on that spot marks the site of the famous battle between the Comanche Indians under Peta Nocona and a detachment of Texas Rangers and militia under Ranger Captain "Sul" Ross. The battle was fought to protect the lives and property of white settlers in the area who had encroached on land historically belonging to the Comanches
.medicine mounds This very small skirmish gradually acquired an unwarranted grandiosity as a major Texan historical event primarily due to the self-promotion by Sul Ross who claimed that "the great Comanche confederacy  forever broken, the blow was decisive, their illustrious chief slept with his fathers and with him were most of his doughtywas warriors."ranch
This battle is primarily remembered as the place where Cynthia Ann Parker was recaptured from the Comanche she had lived with for 24 years.
Despite Ross's claim that Nocona was killed at Pease River, his son insisted he was not present, and died several years later. This claim is supported by Texas historian John Henry Brown. Brown had already disputed the identity of the chief killed at Mule Creek,Foard County Ranch for sale in Texas before Quanah came onto the reservation, stating he was told the name of the man killed at Pease River was Mo-he-ew, not Peta Nocona. Quanah then wrote an affidavit disputing his father's death: "….while I was too young to remember the chief it is likely that Brown was correct…." 
 Cynthia became part of the Comanche band and stayed with them for 24 years. During that time she gave birth to three children before she was "rescued" at age 34, by the Texas Rangers.ccmFoard County TX New Margaret Sign She spent the remaining 10 years of her life trying to adjust back to civilized life as a Texan. At least once she escaped and tried to return to her Comanche family and children, but was again "rescued" and brought back to Texas. She had difficulty in understanding her iconic status to the nation, which had made her the object of Redemption from the savages. One of her three children was Quanah Parker, the last Comanche chief
 During the American Civil War, when the army was unavailable to protect the frontier, the Comanche and Kiowa pushed white settlements back over 100 miles on the Texas frontier.Battle of Plum Creek

Iron Jacket (born ca. late 1780s or early 1790s – died 1858) was a Native American War Chief and Chief of the Comanche Indians.

Iron Jacket (Po-hebitsquash, Pro-he-bits-quash-a, Po-bish-e-quasho in Comanche) was a Comanche chieftain and medicine man whom the Comanche believed had the power to blow bullets aside with his breath. His name probably resulted from his habit of wearing a Spanish coat of mail into battle, which protected him from most light weapons fire.
On May 12, 1858, the jacket failed to protect him, and he was killed on the bank of the South Canadian River in the battle of Little Robe Creek where Battle of  his band of Comanches fought a combined force of Texas Rangers and Brazos Reservation Indians led by John S. Ford, Shapley P. Ross, and Placido, the Tonkawa chief and father of chief Quanah Parker. His band Noconis, or Wanderers, or travellers were named after him. Some sources indicate that his name means He who travels alone and returns in reference to the role of the band as an expeditionary attack force. Nocona, Texas is named after the Noconi leader.war and peace figures

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